Tshwane University of Technology

The Tshwane University of Technology (TUT) is truly an institution in service of the Southern African community. It also aims at making a significant contribution to creating sustainable economic growth that will impact on the standard of living of all of the region's people.TUT strives to be a leading institution, viewing the diversity of its staff, students and other stakeholders as a strength to be nurtured in service of the country and the African continent.

The education offered at TUT, with its entrepreneurial focus, opens up unlimited opportunities for students to become job creators and entrepreneurs by stimulating innovation and creative thinking.

COVID-19 lockdown music lessons: Digitalising for online music learning

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Photography, Film & Multimedia

With the COVID-19 outbreak, universities worldwide have moved towards online learning or distance education. Despite pioneering work by distance learning institutions globally, the digital platform remains unexplored, particularly for online music teaching and learning. Face-to-face teaching for practical based subjects is challenging due to COVID-19 protocols.

Use of automation and artificial intelligence as a sub-set of knowledge management domain in architectural organisations in South Africa

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Architecture & Built Environment

The purpose of this paper is to publish research findings on the use of automation and artificial intelligence as a sub-set of knowledge management domains in architectural organisations in South Africa. Automation and artificial intelligence are two aspects that the fourth industrial revolution deals with, and automation may drastically change the way humans work.

For this paper, research data was collected by means of a qualitative research study. Consisting of 14 semi-structured interviews. The paper presents a discussion and research on the use of automation and artificial intelligence in the service architectural organisations provide.

Measures by an advertising company to mitigate the impact of COVID-19: A case study and the Next Normal for design education

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Media & Communications Design

This study aimed to identify the measures taken by a large international advertising company to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, and how these measures could be applied to design education. We interviewed a senior business partner of the company and determined the measures they took and their business variables affected by the pandemic. The results show how the pandemic affected interaction between design professionals; how they develop and present their creative solutions and how they brainstorm, collaborate, and remain inspired. The company will not be returning to their previous way of operating, and neither do they see the need to do so.

Determining jewellery students’ CAD competencies as a means to incorporate a student-led teaching strategy: A case study

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Fashion, Jewellery & Textile Design

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many changes to educators’ teaching approaches. The pandemic has also highlighted the role that technology and the fourth industrial revolution play in the future of tertiary education. Many educators have to adapt to these changes and adopt strategies to benefit the students’ prospective positions in various industries. Computer-aided design (CAD) has revolutionised the jewellery industry, mainly through decreasing production timelines, increasing the accuracy of the pieces, and creating production-ready designs. Initially, the industry was slow to integrate the technology, but it is now widely used in jewellery manufacturing.

Research ethics in South African visual communication design: A principlist approach to non-anonymity

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Design Education Research

Keeping participants anonymous is a core principle in research ethics and accepted as international best practice. In this paper, we consider ways of improving the ethical quality of visual communication research in the ‘new normal’ situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we use an argumentative discourse approach to discuss issues and concerns surrounding anonymity from a principlist perspective. The first section provides an orientation on international best practices and core research ethics principles. The second section reflects on South African research ethics committees, their functions, and the poor fit between a health research-orientated approach and research in art and design departments.

Student Photography and Ethical Clearance: Do we need a tailored code for research ethics?

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Photography, Film & Multimedia

In an earlier paper presented at a DEFSA conference, Munro called for a debate on and the development of a research ethics code tailored specifically for design – as opposed to simply importing, applying or borrowing ethical principles applicable (and as such possibly more suitable) to the medical and scientific disciplines.

The aim of this paper is to advocate likewise for a tailored research ethics code, but, more comprehensively, aimed at researchers working in the fields of art, design, as well as photography.

The Value of Using Hypothesis-Testing Research for Graphic Design: Do decorative pictures contribute to learning?

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Graphic Design & Visual Art

Graphic design as an academic and research practice is relatively young when compared to the established disciplines such as education, psychology, medicine, and history. It was only community-type colleges and technical institutions that offered design as a vocational trade. Universities in South Africa started to offer design in the latter half of the twentieth century. It is only in the last two decades that we have seen design research output in South Africa. The relatively low number of international design journals when compared to education, for example, attest to the young scientific discipline of research in design.

Sincerity, Authenticity and the Artistic Imperative in contemporary Zulu indlamu dance costume

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Fashion, Jewellery & Textile Design

Historically, the Zulu indlamu costume is a traditional battle dress. Over the years, it has come to constitute a significant feature of contemporary theatre stages in South Africa. Like other traditional forms that have made the transition from original functionality into the realm of art as education and entertainment, its accompanying costumes and regalia have aided the process. Together with these iconic costumes and related regalia, the indlamu dance continues to play a prominent role in the propagation of Zulu art and cultural identity.

Towards a Pragmatic Code of Ethics for Design Research

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Design Education Research

Research ethics committees (RECs) at universities evaluate applications for ethical clearance through ethical research lenses shaped by positivist and interpretivist paradigms and cultural constructivist thinking. Such lenses predominantly follow reasoning strategies that could include inductive or deductive reasoning. Research ethics committees further interrogate applicants’ methodology and monitor their actions to determine whether they meet extant research ethics principles.

Assessment of Postgraduate Studies: Are we missing the mark?

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Design Education Strategy

The first author had the privilege to examine master’s dissertations, as well as doctoral theses on design and design-related topics presented at six universities in South Africa. He furthermore supervised postgraduate students at four universities and served on a variety of postgraduate and ethics committees. This exposure and access to various examination reports and postgraduate assessment criteria provide an informed perspective of the scope, depth and outcomes of, as well as the assessment practices surrounding postgraduate studies in South Africa. Examination reports from examiners outside South Africa are, in general, more favourable with mark allocation than the examination reports issued by South African examiners.

Contesting the Decolonisation Narrative: Towards an Entrepreneurship Based Graphic Design Curricula

“Community” as the basic architectural unit: rethinking research and practice towards a decolonised education

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Architecture & Built Environment

As a contribution to the decolonisation debate, we need to develop theoretical frameworks that are better suited to diverse contexts, specifically Africa, and we need to elevate local knowledge systems, thinking that originates from the African continent and architectural theory from African scholars. It also demands a shift from documentation (which we tend to do when studying Africa) to interpretation and the development of new theories and new methodologies of research and practice.

Decolonizing Thought Practices with Discussion Approaches for Built Environment Educators

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Architecture & Built Environment

Decolonization is a globally relevant redress of local customs and practices that have remained altered since the times of historic colonial expansion. In South Africa, education forms one such set of customs and practices and the built environment another. Educators in the field of built environments share a responsibility to challenge the accepted norms under colonial systems and find ways in which to facilitate the creation of built environments that reflect the needs and aspirations of their society. Seepe (2004, pp. 160-174) urges us to rethink curriculum functioning, and attitude in the context of African traditions, conscientiously instilling relevance in both the system and the resulting products of that system. ‘In our curricula lies the very identity of our society.

History of African indigenous costumes and textiles: Towards decolonising a fashion design curriculum.

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Fashion, Jewellery & Textile Design

Worldwide, a close connection is demonstrated between the clothes worn by people and their cultural or political expression. The subject covering the history of costume taught in many fashion schools or institutions, focuses primarily on Western ideologies with little to no African concepts addressed. This paper explores the availability of a rich history of African costume and textiles that have remained indigenous to many people in most parts of Africa. Some of the examples include the dressing styles of the Maasai of East Africa, Adire textile influences of the Yoruba from West Africa and the Himba and Ndebele from Southern Africa.

Design Education as Woke Work

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Design Education Strategy

Ashraf Jamal (2016b, p. 68) regards the work Us and them, the killer of the world by artist Simphiwe Ndzube (2015) as an important signifier of the sociopolitical turmoil in the national psyche which openly erupted in the Rhodes Must Fall campaign in March of that year. Jamal highlights the essential work of interrogating social realities such as inequality on a structural level (which he argues this artwork accomplishes). He also reminds us that the dynamic of 'us and them' does not passively play out in institutions such as universities, invested in sustaining neoliberal interests as they are, but is actively replicated in such institutions.

Ethics and packaging design: Marketing of sugary breakfast cereals to South African children

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Media & Communications Design

Child-orientated sugary breakfast cereals are a prominent product feature in the dry goods section of supermarkets. Scholars in health sciences and marketing have reported on these products’ poor nutritional value and how marketers appeal to children through the use of persuasive television advertising and packaging design. This study presents a visual thematic content analysis of child- orientated breakfast cereal packaging available in local supermarkets. The results indicated that South African marketers use “friendly” and “welcoming” cartoon characters as the most prominent graphic element on breakfast cereal packaging.

The perception of registered design protection in the South African Jewellery Industry

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Fashion, Jewellery & Textile Design

The aim of this paper is to examine the perception and validity of commercial design protection in the South African Jewellery Industry and to convey the general consensus regarding the registration of commercial designs. This exploratory study employs quantitative research and information was collated through a questionnaire that was distributed by the Jewellery Council of South Africa. The questionnaire gauged, inter alia, whether South African jewellers are aware of the Designs Act, the design registration process and which commercial designs are registered.

Re-representation: Addressing objectifying media portrayals of women in South Africa

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Media & Communications Design

Objectification imparts harm to women and sets a detrimental precedent for self-objectification. This is particularly true for young women who are seeking information to assist them in the process of identity construction. Experimental studies indicate that objectification in media causes negative body esteem, an unnecessary drive for thinness, eating disorders and related psychological problems. Globalised media trends emphasise and value women for their physical appearance. These trends de- personalise women, depict them as objects to be gazed at, and style them as decorative, rather than a person with a mind, aptitude, intellect, personality and a ‘voice’.

Non-maleficence as an ethical guideline to design

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Media & Communications Design

South Africa finds itself in the difficult position of not having a truly representative voice for design practice. Furthermore, we find ourselves without an advertising regulator with legislative support or legal force with a view on ensuring ethical and non-harmful design practice. The closest we come to such a body, is our advertising self-regulator, namely the Advertising Standards Authority of South Africa (ASASA).

Toward an entrepreneully orientated design model for the SA small business that provides custom-made apparel

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Fashion, Jewellery & Textile Design

The South African government has invested in skills development ever since 1995 in an effort to facilitate more opportunities for small business and micro business (SMME) owners. Skills development programs offered in South Africa include the development of technical skills like apparel construction. At least 129 active apparel SMMEs were operating in the Pretoria region of Gauteng province during between 2001 and 2013. Most of these SMMEs provide custom‐made apparel for their individual customers and the owner‐designers of these businesses are involved in the design process of the custom‐made apparel, but also play an imperative role in the business functions that directly relate to the design process.

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